El voto como derecho humano fundamental irrenunciable

Mucho se ha discutido sobre el voto obligatorio, para justificar esta acción contraria a la voluntad qué manifestado la ciudadanía en las encuestas y consulta municipal, se han emitido una serie de argumentos apelando a la “libertad de opción”. Como si en Chile existiera una democracia perfecta, con un desarrollado educacional y culturalmente de primera línea, donde la gente de verdad puede elegir de manera informada, obteniendo opiniones totalmente pluralistas.

Ese argumento suena muy parecido a la teoría de la “mano invisible” y el libre mercado, donde se privilegia la supuesta capacidad de elegir, así todo se autorregula solo por la oferta y demanda. Pero ¿cómo una persona puede decidir libremente, encadenado a las urgencias económicas, sociales y culturales, basándose en una información manipulada o, a lo menos, subjetiva?

La utilización de la palabra “obligatorio” no es necesariamente literal, de hecho, en los países que han puesto en práctica este sistema, no han buscado coartar las libertades, más bien, pretende generar una cultura cívica. Comprendieron que al momento de votar queda de manifiesto que todos son absolutamente iguales y valen lo mismo en la sociedad que comparten.

Claro que el elemento esencial que debería primar es convertir el voto en un derecho humano fundamental, que costó sangre a lo largo de la historia, de lo cual se vuelve irrenunciable.

En este último sentido, se podría comparar con la abolición de la esclavitud ¿seríamos capaz dejar que alguien que volviera a ser esclavo por opción? seguramente si esto existiera, encontraríamos muchas campañas comunicacionales sobre lo bueno de ser esclavo. Se podría ir a lo más básico, que la gente optara por pagar impuestos o no, o que fuera opcional la educación en todos sus niveles, lo mismo en salud o en cada uno de los derechos fundamentales. Pero esto no es posible, ya que la sociedad ha ido comprendiendo su importancia a través de la historia, y el daño que generó cuando no estaban garantizados.

Claramente se ha avanzado en los derechos adquiridos y hoy Chile quiere volver a caminar por esa senda. Eso va más allá de la palabra literal (obligatorio), se necesita una mirada procesal, donde se construya una sociedad con la gente totalmente incluida, como los han hecho todos los países que han vivido un estallido parecido al que estamos presenciando, dejando las paradojas sobreexplotadas del concepto de libertad, sino más bien, entender al ser humano como un “ser histórico”, que debe generar pilares sólidos para ir construyendo una nueva democracia para las generaciones venideras y no tomar decisiones en base a una nación fantasma.

Cristóbal Mardones, Periodista

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